We have proposed three fundamental ways to strengthen national pharmaceutical research and development policies. 11.While the successful conclusion of the Phase 1 negotiations and the subsequent progress of the withdrawal agreement make an orderly exit from the EU more likely, the Prime Minister said that „no deal for Britain is better than a bad deal for Britain“. 26 As long as this is possible, the pharmaceutical industry, both in the UK and in the EU, has no choice but to prepare for this scenario, and so does it. Following the UK`s exit from the EU, the government pledged to avoid the customs union and the internal market. In the absence of a new trade agreement, this would amount to a return to World Trade Organization (WTO) tariffs. The WTO agreement on the elimination of tariffs on medicines requires that signatory states, such as Japan, the United States, Canada, Australia and EU Member States, are subject to zero-rate tariffs on finished pharmaceuticals and certain components; However, for other countries such as Brazil, China and Russia, tariffs range from 1 to 15%. 27 As part of these investigations, we have been called to testify before the U.S. Congress on several occasions. Some members of the U.S.
Congress have been interested in how the government could protect consumers from excessive drug prices, including drugs protected by the U.S. Orphan Drug Act or drugs developed with the help of the public. At such a hearing in February 1993 before the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Aging, Ralph Nader and I were asked whether the government should use compulsory licensing as an instrument of consumer protection. (4) Mr. Nader told the Committee that the U.S. government`s ability to do so would be severely limited by the upcoming North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This is the first time I have realized that international trade agreements restrict our national sovereignty over drug policy. The pharmaceutical agreement is one of many sectoral initiatives agreed at the Uruguay Round. A number of parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) have agreed to remove and/or reduce tariffs on certain sectors (TN/MA/S/13). Unlike multilateral agreements, these sectoral agreements, as they are called, were signed by and for the groups of participants and not for all WTO members. Participants pledged to implement the results on the basis of the most favoured nation.
12.Whether or not the UK signs the agreement on the abolition of drug tariffs after its withdrawal from the EU, it will remain able to trade with the EU on the basis of a zero tariff on medicines. In written evidence to the EU Foreign Affairs Subcommittee in February 2017 The Government confirmed, under the 1994 agreement and subsequent audits, participating members pledged to eliminate not only tariffs and all other duties and taxes on all finished pharmaceuticals, whether sold in bulk or in retail-based packaging (paracetamol, antibiotics, vaccines, etc.), but also on more than 7,000 pharmaceutical chemicals and chemical ingredients used in the pharmaceutical supply chain. An indicative list of identified positions is included in JOB/MA/142. MOSCOW (Reuters) – Russia has accused Western states of violating a promise to respect Ukraine`s sovereignty and political independence as part of a 1994 security insurance deal by saying it committed „a coup“ that toppled President Viktor Yanukovych last month.