There are signs that the dynamics within the profession are oriented to the left. Among the five major economic magazines that have seen the largest increase in influence in recent decades, for example, the Quarterly Journal of Economics, associated with Harvard and its interventionist economy. Some of it comes at the expense of the Journal of Political Economy, which is linked to the University of Chicago and its market economy. Another intangible factor is cultural norms and social institutions. The differences in wealth between countries cannot be explained on the basis of resources. It is not as if South Korea is rich in raw materials compared to North Korea or that Israel is rich in raw materials compared to its Arab neighbors. South Korea and Israel have more business-friendly political and cultural institutions, and that is what makes their economic performance relatively strong. In fact, the fundamental question of how the economy should understand itself now requires urgent attention. Since the creation of the American Economic Association in the 1880s, economists have sought a special status as scientific policy experts in the country. In the last 50 years in particular, they have largely achieved this status. We do not know if they deserve it.
And what a scientific economy would really look like is not as clear as some economists imagine. A remarkable current in classical economics was under the theory of consumption, as advanced by the Birmingham School and Thomas Robert Malthus in the early 19th century. They advocated government measures to reduce unemployment and economic downturns and were an intellectual precursor to the future Keynesian economy in the 1930s. Another notable school was Manchester capitalism, which defended free trade against the politics of commercialism. In 1962, American economists published James M. Buchanan (1919-2013) and Gordon Tullock (1922-2014) The Calculus of Consent, which revived the Theory of Public Choice by distinguishing politics (the rules of the game) from public order (the strategies to be adopted within the rules), the foundation of constitutional economics, the economic analysis of constitutional law. In 1986, Buchanan was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics. In this regard, the barriers to an effective theory in the economy are different and perhaps more worrying than in 1980. The current state of economic theory reflects a broader crisis in the social sciences and a growing division between the university campus and the rest of society.
Thinkers associated with the anarchist economy, in 1662, the English economist Sir William Petty (1623-1687) began publishing short works that applied Francis Bacon`s rational scientific tradition to economics, requiring that they use only measurable phenomena and seek quantitative precision by introducing the term „political arithmetic,“ introducing statistical mathematics and becoming the first scientific economist. The classical Western business model was based on the economic realities of the 18th century. The factors of production were relatively fixed: the land was immobile (although its fertility or use may change) and labour mobility was severely constrained by political constraints. For most of the century, cross-border capital movements have been constrained by political barriers and lack of knowledge in other markets. (However, by the middle of the 19th century, capital and labour were freer between Europe and America. The technology in the 18th century was relatively simple by current standards and was relatively similar in all countries. In addition, production of most products was exposed to declining yields at that time, which meant that with the increase in production, the production costs of each additional unit increased.